" Never place your trust in us，we're only human. "

# Task #1 Logistic regression

## ex2.m

``````%% Machine Learning Online Class - Exercise 2: Logistic Regression
%
%  Instructions
%  ------------
%
%  This file contains code that helps you get started on the logistic
%  regression exercise. You will need to complete the following functions
%  in this exericse:
%
%     sigmoid.m
%     costFunction.m
%     predict.m
%     costFunctionReg.m
%
%  For this exercise, you will not need to change any code in this file,
%  or any other files other than those mentioned above.
%

%% Initialization
clear ; close all; clc

%  The first two columns contains the exam scores and the third column
%  contains the label.

X = data(:, [1, 2]); y = data(:, 3);

%% ==================== Part 1: Plotting ====================
%  We start the exercise by first plotting the data to understand the
%  the problem we are working with.

fprintf(['Plotting data with + indicating (y = 1) examples and o ' ...
'indicating (y = 0) examples.\n']);

plotData(X, y);

% Put some labels
hold on;
% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Exam 1 score')
ylabel('Exam 2 score')

% Specified in plot order
hold off;

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============ Part 2: Compute Cost and Gradient ============
%  In this part of the exercise, you will implement the cost and gradient
%  for logistic regression. You neeed to complete the code in
%  costFunction.m

%  Setup the data matrix appropriately, and add ones for the intercept term
[m, n] = size(X);

% Add intercept term to x and X_test
X = [ones(m, 1) X];

% Initialize fitting parameters
initial_theta = zeros(n + 1, 1);

% Compute and display initial cost and gradient
[cost, grad] = costFunction(initial_theta, X, y);

fprintf('Cost at initial theta (zeros): %f\n', cost);
fprintf('Expected cost (approx): 0.693\n');
fprintf('Gradient at initial theta (zeros): \n');
fprintf(' %f \n', grad);
fprintf('Expected gradients (approx):\n -0.1000\n -12.0092\n -11.2628\n');

% Compute and display cost and gradient with non-zero theta
test_theta = [-24; 0.2; 0.2];
[cost, grad] = costFunction(test_theta, X, y);

fprintf('\nCost at test theta: %f\n', cost);
fprintf('Expected cost (approx): 0.218\n');
fprintf('Gradient at test theta: \n');
fprintf(' %f \n', grad);
fprintf('Expected gradients (approx):\n 0.043\n 2.566\n 2.647\n');

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============= Part 3: Optimizing using fminunc  =============
%  In this exercise, you will use a built-in function (fminunc) to find the
%  optimal parameters theta.

%  Set options for fminunc
options = optimset('GradObj', 'on', 'MaxIter', 400);

%  Run fminunc to obtain the optimal theta
%  This function will return theta and the cost
[theta, cost] = ...
fminunc(@(t)(costFunction(t, X, y)), initial_theta, options);

% Print theta to screen
fprintf('Cost at theta found by fminunc: %f\n', cost);
fprintf('Expected cost (approx): 0.203\n');
fprintf('theta: \n');
fprintf(' %f \n', theta);
fprintf('Expected theta (approx):\n');
fprintf(' -25.161\n 0.206\n 0.201\n');

% Plot Boundary
plotDecisionBoundary(theta, X, y);

% Put some labels
hold on;
% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Exam 1 score')
ylabel('Exam 2 score')

% Specified in plot order
hold off;

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============== Part 4: Predict and Accuracies ==============
%  After learning the parameters, you'll like to use it to predict the outcomes
%  on unseen data. In this part, you will use the logistic regression model
%  to predict the probability that a student with score 45 on exam 1 and
%  score 85 on exam 2 will be admitted.
%
%  Furthermore, you will compute the training and test set accuracies of
%  our model.
%
%  Your task is to complete the code in predict.m

%  Predict probability for a student with score 45 on exam 1
%  and score 85 on exam 2

prob = sigmoid([1 45 85] * theta);
fprintf(['For a student with scores 45 and 85, we predict an admission ' ...
'probability of %f\n'], prob);
fprintf('Expected value: 0.775 +/- 0.002\n\n');

% Compute accuracy on our training set
p = predict(theta, X);

fprintf('Train Accuracy: %f\n', mean(double(p == y)) * 100);

fprintf('Expected accuracy (approx): 89.0\n');
fprintf('\n');

``````
``````% Compute accuracy on our training set
p = predict(theta, X);

fprintf('Train Accuracy: %f\n', mean(double(p == y)) * 100);
``````

‘p’ : predict value

‘y’ : real value

double(py) : 两者逐一对比，相同置1，不同置0，mean计算均值；【double(p~=y) 向量p与真实值向量y逐一对比，相同则置为0，不同则置为1。与上述对比正好相反。】

## plotData.m

``````function plotData(X, y)
%PLOTDATA Plots the data points X and y into a new figure
%   PLOTDATA(x,y) plots the data points with + for the positive examples
%   and o for the negative examples. X is assumed to be a Mx2 matrix.

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Plot the positive and negative examples on a
%               2D plot, using the option 'k+' for the positive
%               examples and 'ko' for the negative examples.
%

% Create New Figure
% Find Indices of Positive and Negative Examples
pos = find(y==1); neg = find(y == 0);
% Plot Examples
plot(X(pos, 1), X(pos, 2), 'k+','LineWidth',2, 'MarkerSize', 7);
hold on;
plot(X(neg, 1), X(neg, 2), 'ko', 'MarkerFaceColor', 'y','MarkerSize', 7);
hold on;

% =========================================================================

hold off;

end

``````
``````pos = find(y==1)
``````

find函数用来索引，找到 y=1 的index，可在数组中使用

## costFunction.m

``````function [J, grad] = costFunction(theta, X, y)
%COSTFUNCTION Compute cost and gradient for logistic regression
%   J = COSTFUNCTION(theta, X, y) computes the cost of using theta as the
%   parameter for logistic regression and the gradient of the cost
%   w.r.t. to the parameters.

% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples

% You need to return the following variables correctly
J = 0;

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the cost of a particular choice of theta.
%               You should set J to the cost.
%               Compute the partial derivatives and set grad to the partial
%               derivatives of the cost w.r.t. each parameter in theta
%
% Note: grad should have the same dimensions as theta
%

h = sigmoid(X*theta);
J = sum((-y)'*log(h)-(1-y)'*log(1-h))/m

% =============================================================

end

``````

## sigmoid.m

``````function g = sigmoid(z)
%SIGMOID Compute sigmoid function
%   g = SIGMOID(z) computes the sigmoid of z.

% You need to return the following variables correctly
g = zeros(size(z));

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the sigmoid of each value of z (z can be a matrix,
%               vector or scalar).

g = 1./(1+exp(-z));    %  "./" because z is a matrix

% =============================================================

end

``````

## predict.m

``````function p = predict(theta, X)
%PREDICT Predict whether the label is 0 or 1 using learned logistic
%regression parameters theta
%   p = PREDICT(theta, X) computes the predictions for X using a
%   threshold at 0.5 (i.e., if sigmoid(theta'*x) >= 0.5, predict 1)

m = size(X, 1); % Number of training examples

% You need to return the following variables correctly
p = zeros(m, 1);

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Complete the following code to make predictions using
%               your learned logistic regression parameters.
%               You should set p to a vector of 0's and 1's
%
v=sigmoid(X*theta);
for i = 1:m
if v(i,1)>=0.5
p(i,1) = 1;
else p(i,1) = 0;
end
end

% =========================================================================

end
``````

## mapFeature.m

``````function out = mapFeature(X1, X2)
% MAPFEATURE Feature mapping function to polynomial features
%
%   MAPFEATURE(X1, X2) maps the two input features
%   to quadratic features used in the regularization exercise.
%
%   Returns a new feature array with more features, comprising of
%   X1, X2, X1.^2, X2.^2, X1*X2, X1*X2.^2, etc..
%
%   Inputs X1, X2 must be the same size
%

degree = 6;
out = ones(size(X1(:,1)));
for i = 1:degree
for j = 0:i
out(:, end+1) = (X1.^(i-j)).*(X2.^j);
end
end

end
``````

## plotDescisionBoundary.m

``````function plotDecisionBoundary(theta, X, y)
%PLOTDECISIONBOUNDARY Plots the data points X and y into a new figure with
%the decision boundary defined by theta
%   PLOTDECISIONBOUNDARY(theta, X,y) plots the data points with + for the
%   positive examples and o for the negative examples. X is assumed to be
%   a either
%   1) Mx3 matrix, where the first column is an all-ones column for the
%      intercept.
%   2) MxN, N>3 matrix, where the first column is all-ones

% Plot Data
plotData(X(:,2:3), y);
hold on

if size(X, 2) <= 3
% Only need 2 points to define a line, so choose two endpoints
plot_x = [min(X(:,2))-2,  max(X(:,2))+2];

% Calculate the decision boundary line
plot_y = (-1./theta(3)).*(theta(2).*plot_x + theta(1));

% Plot, and adjust axes for better viewing
plot(plot_x, plot_y)

% Legend, specific for the exercise
axis([30, 100, 30, 100])
else
% Here is the grid range
u = linspace(-1, 1.5, 50);
v = linspace(-1, 1.5, 50);

z = zeros(length(u), length(v));
% Evaluate z = theta*x over the grid
for i = 1:length(u)
for j = 1:length(v)
z(i,j) = mapFeature(u(i), v(j))*theta;
end
end
z = z'; % important to transpose z before calling contour

% Plot z = 0
% Notice you need to specify the range [0, 0]
contour(u, v, z, [0, 0], 'LineWidth', 2)
end
hold off

end

``````

# Task #2 Regularized logistic regression

## ex1_reg.m

``````%% Machine Learning Online Class - Exercise 2: Logistic Regression
%
%  Instructions
%  ------------
%
%  This file contains code that helps you get started on the second part
%  of the exercise which covers regularization with logistic regression.
%
%  You will need to complete the following functions in this exericse:
%
%     sigmoid.m
%     costFunction.m
%     predict.m
%     costFunctionReg.m
%
%  For this exercise, you will not need to change any code in this file,
%  or any other files other than those mentioned above.
%

%% Initialization
clear ; close all; clc

%  The first two columns contains the X values and the third column
%  contains the label (y).

X = data(:, [1, 2]); y = data(:, 3);

plotData(X, y);

% Put some labels
hold on;

% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Microchip Test 1')
ylabel('Microchip Test 2')

% Specified in plot order
legend('y = 1', 'y = 0')
hold off;

%% =========== Part 1: Regularized Logistic Regression ============
%  In this part, you are given a dataset with data points that are not
%  linearly separable. However, you would still like to use logistic
%  regression to classify the data points.
%
%  To do so, you introduce more features to use -- in particular, you add
%  polynomial features to our data matrix (similar to polynomial
%  regression).
%

% Add Polynomial Features

% Note that mapFeature also adds a column of ones for us, so the intercept
% term is handled
X = mapFeature(X(:,1), X(:,2));

% Initialize fitting parameters
initial_theta = zeros(size(X, 2), 1);

% Set regularization parameter lambda to 1
lambda = 1;

% Compute and display initial cost and gradient for regularized logistic
% regression
[cost, grad] = costFunctionReg(initial_theta, X, y, lambda);

fprintf('Cost at initial theta (zeros): %f\n', cost);
fprintf('Expected cost (approx): 0.693\n');
fprintf('Gradient at initial theta (zeros) - first five values only:\n');
fprintf(' %f \n', grad(1:5));
fprintf('Expected gradients (approx) - first five values only:\n');
fprintf(' 0.0085\n 0.0188\n 0.0001\n 0.0503\n 0.0115\n');

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

% Compute and display cost and gradient
% with all-ones theta and lambda = 10
test_theta = ones(size(X,2),1);
[cost, grad] = costFunctionReg(test_theta, X, y, 10);

fprintf('\nCost at test theta (with lambda = 10): %f\n', cost);
fprintf('Expected cost (approx): 3.16\n');
fprintf('Gradient at test theta - first five values only:\n');
fprintf(' %f \n', grad(1:5));
fprintf('Expected gradients (approx) - first five values only:\n');
fprintf(' 0.3460\n 0.1614\n 0.1948\n 0.2269\n 0.0922\n');

fprintf('\nProgram paused. Press enter to continue.\n');
pause;

%% ============= Part 2: Regularization and Accuracies =============
%  Optional Exercise:
%  In this part, you will get to try different values of lambda and
%  see how regularization affects the decision coundart
%
%  Try the following values of lambda (0, 1, 10, 100).
%
%  How does the decision boundary change when you vary lambda? How does
%  the training set accuracy vary?
%

% Initialize fitting parameters
initial_theta = zeros(size(X, 2), 1);

% Set regularization parameter lambda to 1 (you should vary this)
lambda = 10;

% Set Options
options = optimset('GradObj', 'on', 'MaxIter', 400);

% Optimize
[theta, J, exit_flag] = ...
fminunc(@(t)(costFunctionReg(t, X, y, lambda)), initial_theta, options);

% Plot Boundary
plotDecisionBoundary(theta, X, y);
hold on;
title(sprintf('lambda = %g', lambda))

% Labels and Legend
xlabel('Microchip Test 1')
ylabel('Microchip Test 2')

legend('y = 1', 'y = 0', 'Decision boundary')
hold off;

% Compute accuracy on our training set
p = predict(theta, X);

fprintf('Train Accuracy: %f\n', mean(double(p == y)) * 100);
fprintf('Expected accuracy (with lambda = 1): 83.1 (approx)\n');

``````

## costFunctionReg.m

``````function [J, grad] = costFunctionReg(theta, X, y, lambda)
%COSTFUNCTIONREG Compute cost and gradient for logistic regression with regularization
%   J = COSTFUNCTIONREG(theta, X, y, lambda) computes the cost of using
%   theta as the parameter for regularized logistic regression and the
%   gradient of the cost w.r.t. to the parameters.

% Initialize some useful values
m = length(y); % number of training examples

% You need to return the following variables correctly
J = 0;

% ====================== YOUR CODE HERE ======================
% Instructions: Compute the cost of a particular choice of theta.
%               You should set J to the cost.
%               Compute the partial derivatives and set grad to the partial
%               derivatives of the cost w.r.t. each parameter in theta

h=sigmoid(X*theta);
theta(1,1)=0;
J=sum((-y)'*log(h)-(1-y)'*log(1-h))/m+lambda/2/m*sum(power(theta,2));%power(theta,2)-->"theta^2"

% =============================================================

end

``````

# Review

1. double(py) : compare p with y one by one，set 1 if same，set 0 if different，mean() will return mean；[double(p~=y) set 0 if same，set 1 if different]

2. m = find(y1) can find index of y=1, and the corresponding value in matrix M is M(m, 1)

3. Please remember ‘.*’ and ‘,^’ in MATLAB.

4. The decision boundary will be changed as we vary λ :

Fitting

fitting

Underfitting

Overfitting

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